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Got it figured out? Hit me up to join a division. My handle in the game is XBradTC.
The 737 was originally something of a flop, and it wasn’t until the switch to the CFM56 engine that it became a truly successful design. The latest iteration of the 737, the MAX, is probably about as far as the basic design can grow, but we can expect to see them rolling off the production line (at a rate of up to 2 or even 3 a day) for many years to come.
The flight is presumably staged out of Moses Lake airport, in central Washington state, where Boeing does much of its flight test, and takes place over the gorgeous Columbia River Gorge.
We have, over the years, discussed any number of times the organization of various Army units, for instance the organization of a Heavy Brigade Combat Team, with its maneuver battalions, fire support, and what not. We’ve discussed the generally triangular organization of most echelons of the Army. We’ve often discussed the relationship between a unit commander and his subordinate and superior commanders.
What we haven’t gotten around to is discussing the staff.
Let’s take a moment to consider the Combined Arms Battalion (CAB) of an HBCT. Per FMI 30-9.5, the interim field manual that first described the CAB of the HBCT. The CAB primarily consisted to two companies of Armor, and two companies of Mechanized Infantry. And so, our Battalion Commander, a Lieutenant Colonel, had four* immediate subordinate company commanders, who are Captains.
While each company has a headquarters element, the battalion is the lowest echelon in the Army that has an actual staff. The staff is responsible for planning and monitoring the execution of the mission under the direction of the Battalion Commander, and his guidance.
Unlike, say, the department heads of a warship, who both have a staff planning function, and exercise leadership over their departments and subordinate divisions, the staff does not exercise command over the subordinate companies.**
So who are the staff officers?
Our Battalion Commander has three different types of staff-
Personal Staff- The Battalion Commander has at least two personal staff, though he may have more. The Command Sergeant Major is on his personal staff, and is his key advisor on issues regarding the NCOs and enlisted personnel of the command. He is also very often his eyes and ears throughout the command, and advises on issues of morale and command climate. The other personal staff is the Battalion Chaplain. The Chaplain, in addition to his religious and counseling duties to the members of the battalion, has a staff responsibility to the Bn CDR to advise on unit morale, as well as moral and ethical issues the Bn CDR faces. In addition, the BC might also have a Personal Security Detachment, and an interpreter as personal staff.
The Coordinating Staff are what we tend to think of when we actually think of the Bn staff. They are organized along functional lines, and while there have traditionally been four staff sections, there are now routinely five, or even more, even at the battalion level.
The staff sections at the battalion level are:
Quite often, the battalion will, depending on its mission, also be authorized an S-5 Civil Affairs staff section.
In addition, of course, the Battalion CDR has an Executive Officer (XO). The XO serves as the Chief of Staff, supervising their work.
The S-1 Section is generally concerned with what your employer would call HR issues, such as ensuring the troops get paid, evaluated, promoted and decorated. On a darker side, they are also responsible for the administrative issues relating the casualties and replacements. The S-1 officer is typically a Captain, and also serves as the unit Adjutant. He is assisted by the Personnel NCO in Charge (PNCOIC), typically a Sergeant First Class, and several personnel clerks.
The S-2 Section both collects and analyses information from the subordinate units, and receives and disseminates intelligence from higher commands. The S-2 Officer is typically a Captain, and is assisted an S-2 NCO, typically either a Staff Sergeant or a Sergeant First Class, and perhaps another Intelligence officer, and one or two enlisted personnel. Depending on the unit mission, the S-2 may also be augmented with additional teams for specific roles, such as a Human Intelligence (HUMINT) exploitation team.
The S-3 Section is by far the largest and most influential of the coordinating staff sections. It is concerned with planning operations during wartime, and a comprehensive training plan during peacetime. The S-3 Officer is a Major, the third most senior officer in the battalion. He has a number of subordinates:
The S-4 Section coordinates the logistical support of the battalion. The S-4 Officer, typically a Captain, designating routes for resupply, times of LOGPACs and working with the Forward Support Company and the Headquarters and Headquarters Company commander to establish the combat trains, and sustain the battalion with fuel, ammunition, rations, and parts. The S-4 Officer is assisted by an NCO, generally a small section of enlisted personnel, and occasionally by an assistant S-4 Officer.
If assigned, the S-5 Section is responsible for Civil Operations, and coordinating Civil and Military Operations.
The S-6 Section is the Signal Section of the Coordinating staff, and is responsible for establishing voice and data networks for the battalion, to include retransmission sites and Local Area Networks, and establishing the datalinks for the various Army battle control networks, such as B2C2 and Blue Force Tracker.
In addition to its own organic assets, our battalion will normally have access to outside supporting fires, either from supporting artillery, or tactical airpower. And that brings us to the third type of staff, the Special Staff.
There are generally two Special Staff Officers assigned to the battalion.
The Fire Support Officer (FSO)is assigned to the staff, but associated with the artillery battalion of the parent HBCT. He is responsible for planning and coordinating not just the fires from the artillery battalion, but all supporting fires from outside the battalion, be it from the HBCT’s artillery battalion, units outside the HBCT providing supporting or reinforcing fires, allies or even Naval Gunfire Support.
The Air Liaison Officer (ALO) is an Air Force officer assigned to the staff who leads the Tactical Air Control Party (TACP) and coordinates all Air Force support to the battalion, and all close air support.
So, how does all this work?
Typically a mission begins with the Battalion Commander receiving a Warning Order from his higher headquarters- That is, the HBCT commander gives him a heads up that a mission will be ordered soon. For instance, Attack OBJ Budweiser to seize the terrain No Later Than 2400 hours 30JULY2016. The Bn CDR quickly passes this information on to both his staff, and to his subordinate company commanders, so they can begin preparations.
Upon receipt of the HBCT Operations Order, the staff will receive guidance from the Bn CDR as to the general outline of what he has planned. Importantly, the CDR will issue his Commander’s Intent- that is, what is the end state goal of what he wants to achieve.
Based upon that, the S-3 and his assistants will begin the Military Decision Making Process, and formulate a plan. They’ll take advice from the various assistants, and from the other staff sections as to what is possible, what is likely, and what is likely not possible. The FSO and the ALO will plan to synchronize all available fires with the plan of maneuver to maximize combat power, while the S-2 tells just what the threat forces likely are. The S-4 will begin planning how much fuel and ammunition is needed, and how to get it to the maneuver companies, before, during, and after the attack. The S-1 will let the staff know just how many troops are available for the mission,and in coordination with the battalion medical platoon, arrange for care and evacuation of wounded, as well as the disposition of any Enemy Prisoners of War (EPW) taken.
The XO will coordinate all these activities, ensuring that the staff is staying true to the CDR’s guidance and intent, and then the staff will generate a tentative Operations Order (OPORD) for the CDR’s review. Upon approval, or revision, the OPORD will be published, and the CDR and the staff will brief the OPORD to the subordinate companies, who will in turn generate their own OPORD for their company’s role in the mission.
During the actual attack, the CDR and the S-3 Officer will place themselves on the battlefield where they can best observe and influence the fight while the Assistant S-3 serves as the “battle captain” at the CP, ensuring the various moving parts are staying in synch.
Staff sections at the battalion and BCT level are numbered with the prefix “S” for “Staff.”
Those at the division, corps, and field army level, are prefixed with “G” as in “G-3” or “G-4” because they represent a “General Staff”, that is, a unit lead by a general officer. Those staffs supporting a Joint Command are prefixed with “J”. So the Operations and Training Officer for CENTCOM would be the J-3.
A typical Army officer might spend as much as half his career serving in one staff position or another at the various level of commands, and almost certainly more time as a staff officer than as a unit commander.
*There’s actually quite a bit more to the CAB than just the four companies, but for simplicity’s sake, we’ll save that for another time.
**Though sometimes, it dearly feels like they would like to try.
In the 1950s, the US went a bit crazy about the whole atomic age. Of course, there were the hundreds of above ground weapons tests, and that sort of thing. But other applications for nuclear power were envisioned as well. For instance, the Army saw small nuclear reactors as a means of prime power generation for remote bases.
One possibility seen was actually using a nuclear reactor to power an airplane. At first, that sounds a bit nutty. But what is the output of a nuclear reactor? Heat, or, if you will, thermal energy. If you take a look at a jet engine, what is the purpose of jet fuel, other than to provide thermal energy? If the heat from a nuclear reactor could be used in place of the heat of jet fuel, theoretically, you could design a plane with essentially unlimited range.
But before the Air Force could begin to design a nuclear powered airplane, they had to learn what it would be like to actually operate a nuclear reactor in flight. And so, they contracted with Convair, maker of the B-36, to design a test reactor, and to fly a series of tests to investigate shielding, operation, and handling procedures.
In the event, the improvement in jet engines, the weight, shielding and handling issues of a reactor, and the widespread acceptance of aerial refueling showed the Air Force that nuclear propulsion was an aviation dead end. Still, it was, if a somewhat futile effort, a certainly interesting one.
In 1943, the US Navy assigned Commander Edward J Steichen USNR, along with a team of combat cameramen, to document the actions of the newly commissioned USS Yorktown, CV-10. USS Yorktown, second of the Essex class fleet carriers that would form the backbone of the strike force of the Pacific Fleet, was named in honor of the previous Yorktown, CV-5, lost at the Battle of Midway.
Steichen and his men, filming in gorgeous 16mm color, provided some of the best visual documentation of carrier operations of the Pacific war. And in 1944, with some careful editing, and after running the film through Technicolor, a one hour propaganda/documentary film titled The Fighting Lady was released.
Mind you, not all the footage was shot aboard Yorktown. Film from various other Essex class carriers was used. And, likely for wartime operational security reasons, the film is kinda fast and loose with the actual ports of call of the ship.
Yorktown herself would survive the war, and soldier on, being converted to an anti-submarine carrier until her decommissioning in 1970. Since 1975, she’s been a museum ship at Patriot’s Point, North Carolina.
Two officers attempting to settle a disagreement by duelling with flares at a British Army base have set fire to the officers mess, according to Forces TV sources.The officers decided the solution to their argument was to each take a kayak into the swimming pool and fire flare guns at each other at the Allenby Barracks in Bovington on Friday night.
NOT the Duffel Blog.
WASHINGTON – The VH-92A Presidential Helicopter Replacement Program successfully passed a major Pentagon test, Lockheed Martin’s Sikorsky subsidiary announced today, with completion of a Critical Design Review (CDR). The milestone means the manufacturing and assembly of the helicopters can take place.
The joint Sikorsky/Naval Air Systems Command (NAVAIR) VH-92A helicopter program team met in July with key collaborators from government and industry for the in-depth design review, Lockheed said in a statement.
The previous program to replace the ancient fleet of VH-3D Presidential helicopters was a disaster, with costs spiraling out of control, and an absolute inability to avoid gold plating the requirements. The basic helicopter selected, the H-71, based on the EH101, wasn't the problem, but turning it into a flying White House was. The airframes that were bought, at stunning cost, were eventually sold to Canada for pennies on the dollar.
One hopes that between the White House and NAVAIR, some lessons were learned, and strict attention was paid during the requirements phase, so that revisions to the contract won't again cause costs to explode.
Even so, it's rather embarrassing that a basic airframe such as the S-92, which has been in civilian service for decades, won't be available for actual Presidential lift missions for at least another 7 years.
Technically, a ration is not one meal, but rather, all the foods provided for one soldier for one day. In essence, breakfast, lunch, dinner, and perhaps a snack such as soup and coffee.
Before the era of processed and canned foods, meat was generally issued either as salt pork, or perhaps dried beef. The daily ration was specified by the Militia Law of 1775 was:
One pound of beef, or 3/4 of a pound of pork or one pound of fish, per day. One pound of bread or flour per day. Three pints of peas or beans per week, or vegetables equivalent, at one dollar per bushel for peas or beans. One pint of milk per man per day. One half-pint of rice, or one pint of Indian meal per man per week. One quart of spruce beer, or cider, per man per day, or nine gallons of mollasses per company of one hundred men per week. Three pounds of candles to one hundred men per week, for guards. Twenty pounds of soft, or eight pounds of hard, soap for one hundred men per week.
Whenever possible, even in the field, the Army strives to avoid using MREs. When in garrison, meals are prepared like at any other institutional kitchen, with commercially procured foodstuffs.
Speaking of commercially procured foodstuffs, it was time to hit Costco and stock up on meats again.
As to combat rations, I *hope* to be able to make a video review of one of the rations I’ve long been fascinated by, the K-Ration.
The murder, this time, not of Israeli Olympic athletes, but German children as they ate in a shopping mall in the Bavarian city of Munich. (URR here.) But the perpetrators are the same as those in September of 1972. Radical Islamists. The very people responsible for Khobar Towers, the Achille Lauro, the first World Trade Center bombing, USS Cole, 9/11, Charlie Hebdo, Brussels, Paris, San Bernadino, Fort Hood, Chattanooga, Orlando, Nice, Nigeria, Syria, Benghazi.... You know. Those who have declared all the West as their mortal enemies. Those whom our own President refuses to acknowledge exist, let alone are responsible for their bloody acts of terrorism. From Daily Mail:
A woman named Loretta said she was in the McDonald's when the man with a gun came out of a bathroom and began shooting.
She told CNN: 'I come out of the toilet and I hear like an alarm, boom, boom, boom. He's killing the children. The children were sitting to eat. They can't run.'
Loretta said she had been in the bathroom at the same time as the shooter, with her eight-year-old son. She said the man yelled: 'Allahu Akbar!'
Guns are, of course, regulated to the point of essentially being illegal in Germany. Unless you are an Islamist who has friends that can get them for you. If so, there is little to stop you from killing anyone and everyone you want, until the police arrive. Just like Hillary and Obama would like here. The perfect recipe for muhammedan terrorism in our cities and towns, even more so than we have already seen? A generous portion of gun control liberally sprinkled with Islamist "refugees". Add an apologist media and office-holders sympathetic (or is that empathetic, Hillary?) to Islamists, stir frequently with racial and class warfare propaganda, just like Alinsky told you.
And spare me the nonsense about how the violent, filthy radical muhammedan terrorists of Black September are somehow different from the violent, filthy radical muhammedan terrorists of Al Qaeda, or ISIS, or Boko Haram, or any of the other violent, filthy muhammedan terrorist organizations, including the Muslim Brotherhood. Because it is a distinction without difference.
They mean to kill Jews, gays, Christians, Westerners. Men, women, children. And continue to succeed. Yet our own President will not even call them our enemies.
The American Army Infantry Division of World War II was a relatively compact unit, finely balanced between firepower and mobility, and with great care to keep the size of the supporting elements to a minimum, and a maximum number of troops on the line. It had three infantry regiments, a division artillery with three battalions of 105mm artillery, and one battalion of 155mm artillery. There were an engineer and medical battalion, a signal company, a cavalry troop, a quartermaster company, and ordnance company, and an MP platoon.
All of these assets were “organic,” that is, they belonged to the division, and were part of the Table of Organization and Equipment, spelling out just how they were to be, well, organized and equipped, and how they were to be manned.
But it was, especially in the later stages of the war, very common, indeed, almost habitual, for higher headquarters to augment an infantry division with additional assets to better accomplish its mission. Most Infantry divisions, especially during an attack, could count on receiving additional artillery battalions to reinforce the fires of the divisional artillery. And by the end of the war, virtually every Infantry division was supported by an attached independent tank battalion. The tank battalion was frequently further divvyed with a tank company supporting each Infantry regiment. So too, a tank destroyer battalion was very often attached, in much the same manner.
A brief digression on the organization of the Army at that time- the division was the largest organization in the Army that had a fixed TO&E. The higher headquarters of a division would normally be a corps, commanding from two to five divisions. Above the corps was the field army (that is, the numbered armies, such as Patton’s 3rd Army). An army normally commanded from two to five corps.
A corps was a tactical headquarters. It had no organic assets beyond its own headquarters. It was assigned such divisions as it needed to accomplish its mission, and those divisions would cycle in and out of the corps as needed. The corps also had no services of supply, or other logistical assets. Those roles were the responsibility of the field army, and the field army pushed fuel, ammunition, rations, replacements, and parts forward directly to the divisions, as well as receiving casualties for evacuation to the rear.
The field armies, while not having a fixed establishment, did have not only organic services of supply, but also a great number of combat and combat support battalions. But the field army rarely directly exercised control over these battalions, instead attaching them to the corps and divisions as needed to bolster their firepower.
For instance, GEN Omar Bradley, in his “A Soldier’s Story,” tells us that on the 24th of June, 1944, VII Corps, a part of his 1st Army, had assigned or attached four Infantry divisions, two Armored divisions, 20 independent artillery battalions, five independent tank battalions, 7 tank destroyer battalions, 11 anti-aircraft battalions, 8 Engineer battalions (and three independent Engineer companies), and two cavalry squadrons. How those battalions were distributed throughout VII, Bradley doesn’t say, but that’s a pretty impressive total, considering the landings only began 18 days before, and that’s just one of four corps ashore in Normandy.
Let’s back up a bit, to World War II. As you doubtless are aware, incapacitating gas was first used on the battlefield, initially with crude chlorine gas, and later to other more deadly gases, such as mustard, in an effort to break the stalemate of trench warfare. It failed to accomplish that, and instead simply added to the already pretty horrific conditions at the front.
The first delivery method of these chemical weapons was to simply position cylinders of chlorine in front of friendly trenches, and wait until the wind would carry the gas across no-man’s land to the enemy trenches.
That was a very inefficient system, and quite hazardous if the wind unexpected shifted, and waiting for the right conditions was often impossible because of other tactical considerations.
Artillery shells that could deliver gas were developed (and used widely) but that distracted the artillery from the firing missions they were needed for.
The British developed the Stokes trench mortar, a simply steel tube with a firing pin at the bottom. It rested on a baseplate, and the tube was held at about a 45 degree angle by a simple bipod. It was fired by simply dropping a round down the tube. Something like a blank super shotgun shell at the bottom struck the firing pin, fired, and the expanding gases sent the round flying. The gas shell itself was a rather simple canister, with a fuze to burst it upon impact, spreading its chemicals in aerosol form. It had a range of about 800 yards, more than enough to cover the distance across no-man’s land, and with its very high rate of fire, quickly became the preferred method of delivering chemical attacks.
After the war, while pretty much everyone was working to prevent or ban the use of chemical weapons in a future war, it was also recognized that a deterrent capability to retaliate in kind would be needed, lest any future opponent exploit a unilateral advantage.
In the United States Army, this responsibility fell to the Chemical Warfare Service , the forerunner to today’s Chemical Corps.
After World War I, the CWS began looking at improving upon the Stokes mortar as a delivery system for chemical weapons. After a lengthy development, they (and interestingly, I mean they, not Ordnance) by 1928 fielded the M1 4.2” Chemical Mortar. One challenge CWS faced was the need for increased range. 800 yards had been fine in 1918, but something more was needed for the future, at least 2000 yards, and hopefully somewhat more. And because the chemical shells had no fins, a rifled tube was needed to keep the shells from tumbling in flight, reducing both accuracy and range.
Further refinements of the mortar, now designated the M2, eventually doubled the range to 4000 yards. It could fire mustard, lewisite, and, since the CWS was also responsible for battlefield smoke, a pair of smoke rounds, one firing a chemical compound known as FS that produced a cloud of thick white smoke, and the other, White Phosphorous, which also produced a thick white cloud of smoke, but was also a potent incendiary, and casualty producing agent, what with the intense heat of burning WP particles.
What there wasn’t, was a high explosive round.
And the reader will recall that in the 1920s and 1930s, the Army was incredibly small, and damn near penniless. So, while the CWS had developed the M2, it hadn’t produced more than a handful of production examples. It wouldn’t be until the eve of America’s entry into World War II that the M2 would be produced in numbers, and fielded with troops.
With the expansion of the Army begun with the Selective Service Act of 1940, the CWS began to form Chemical Mortar Battalions. Originally, each CMB consisted of a battalion headquarters, and four companies, each with four firing platoon, with four tubes in each platoon. In 1943, the battalion lost one company, and each of the remaining three companies lost a firing platoon, bringing the CMB in line with the triangular organization of the ground forces.
It wasn’t until 1942 that MG William N. Porter, then head of the CWS, was able to secure permission to develop a high explosive round for the M2. And it wasn’t until March 1943 that GEN Marshall authorized the use of high explosive shells by the CMBs.
Too late for service in North Africa, the CMBs and their “four dueces” would first go into action July 10, 1943 during the invasion of Sicily with the 2nd Chemical Mortar Battalion.* Prior to the landings, the entire battalion had only fired 35 high explosive rounds in training. Attached in support of the 45th Infantry Division, 2nd CMB would fire some 35,000 rounds of HE during the 38 day campaign. The M2 was popular with Infantry commanders because it was very quick to emplace, incredibly accurate, and could respond to calls for fire far faster than conventional 105mm artillery.
It wasn’t long before Infantry commanders were clamoring for more of the CMBs, and eventually a total of 25 would serve overseas during the war. It was standard operating procedure during both the Italian campaign, and in Patton’s 3rd Army, that every division in the attack would have a CMB attached, if at all possible.
Further CMBs would see service in the Pacific theater, and the Marine Corps would field 12 gun companies to support their infantry regiments.
The mortar itself, while simple, was not crude. It weighed 305 pounds, and could be broken down into three components for transport- the baseplate, the tube, and a monopod support. Originally, each gun section was supposed to be transported by two jeeps, one with the gun, and another with an ammunition trailer, but very often the guns were transported via a handcart over terrain too rough to be passable even by the legendary jeep.
The high explosive shell of the 4.2” mortar weighed just under 25 pounds, with an explosive filler of about 8 pounds of TNT. It could be fitted with either an impact fuze, or a time fuze for airburst, or a delayed impact fuze to allow the round to penetrate a bunker or similar target. While it had only about a third of the range of a 105mm howitzer, the shell was quite comparable in its effect, and it had an incredible rate of fire, about 20 rounds per minute, per gun.
The range of the gun was, like many artillery weapons, adjusted not only by the elevation of the tube, but also by varying the charge used to fire it. When a round was uncased, it had a full charge. This consisted of a fixed base charge, and a series of fabric packets affixed to the base, and loaded with propellant. Consulting the firing tables would tell the appropriate number of charges needed for a given firing range, and the gun crew would simply remove and discard any excess charges needed.
The need to again increase the range of the 4.2” mortar led to a new design, the M30, with a completely revamped baseplate and support, a longer tube, and a range of almost 7000 yards. Introduced in service 1951, the M30 would equip the 2nd CMB in Korea.
Eventually, it was realized that the 4.2” mortar was, like the 60mm and 81mm mortars, more properly an Infantry weapon than a CWS weapon, and responsibility for it was transferred from the CWS to Ordnance.
And after the Korean War, the CMBs were stood down. But that hardly meant demand for the Four-Duece had gone away. Instead, each infantry unit would field its own firing platoons of the M30. Originally, this was a firing battery of 12 guns in the headquarters of the Battle Groups of the Pentomic Division TO&E (though, interestingly, manned by artillerymen). Later, with the reintroduction of the triangular division and conversion of battle groups back to battalions under the ROAD TO&E, each battalion had a six tube mortar platoon, manned by 11C Indirect Fire Infantrymen.
The 4.2” mortar would serve as the heavy mortar for mechanized infantry and armor battalions until well into the 1990s, until replaced by today’s 120mm heavy mortar.
Of note, the round appears to tumble in flight. First, our gunner is using a very, very slight charge, even less than the normal “fixed” base charge. Partly that is because these illumination shells are empty, and thus quite light, and partly that’s because they have a very small range to shoot on.
That in turn means there was a very low pressure in the chamber during firing, and the obturating ring likely failed to fully engage the rifling of the tube.
What’s an obturating ring, you ask? I’ll be happy to explain. Did you see the two discs he emplaced on the round after inserting the fuze, and before adding the firing charge? One was steel, and the other brass.
Because the M2 is muzzle loaded, the round has to be able to slide smoothly down the barrel to strike the fixed firing pin.
But any round that is able to slide smoothly down the tube won’t engage the rifling of the tube on the way back up, and thus won’t be stabilized.
When the round is fired, the steel ring is driven into the brass ring, flattening it, and increasing its diameter and forcing it into the rifling of the tube. This both allows the projective to be spun for stabilization, but also forms a seal that prevents gases from expanding past the projectile body, thus increasing the efficiency of a given charge.
Also known as a driving band, obturating rings are very common on most artillery and mortar projectiles, even smoothbore mortars.
*Sorry, Grump, I double checked. I was right, you were wrong.
But it isn’t the first 5.56mm minigun. GE, original makers of the minigun, did test a 5.56mm version, but decided it had no advantages over its slightly larger cousin, the M134 in 7.62mm.
I’m tired. Not just today.
This whole election, and the last 7 and a half years of the Obama administration, have me feeling quite down. Serisously, it’s hard to write interesting things about the Army when the latest news isn’t what is happening in the war, or what new equipment and doctrine is coming, but the implementation of how the services will pay for sex change operations.
So, yeah, you’re getting a lot of World of Warships videos, and other stuff I scrounge off YouTube.
Because frankly, it’s just too depressing to write about that other stuff.